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Melee is associated with Attack and Strength, and enables the user to attack the target from close range only with weapons like swords, daggers, scimitars, hammers and axes. A higher Attack level will enable the user to wear better weapons and increase his accuracy bonus, thus increasing his chances to deal damage on a target (Defence decreases this chance). Most Monsters use this attack style as their primary style. High-level melee Weapons often have a special attack with different effects. Some melee weapons are able to attack from range, like a Dragon halberd special attack. Melee is weak against Magic and strong against Ranged armour.
Ranged is only determined by the user's Range level, using bows, crossbows, javelins, darts, knives and throwing axes to deal daamge to the target from a distance. The distance can be different based on some range weapons. Some Monsters also use ranged attacks, but don't always carry a weapon to do so, instead attacking with some sort of magical javelin or knife, like Kree'Arra. Monsters that use both Melee and Range as attack styles will switch to only using the Range style when their target is out of range and they cannot approach it. Only the high-level bows have a special attack. Ranged is strong against Magic and weak against Melee armour.
Magic is determined by the user's Magic level and uses magical spells or effects to deal damage to a target from a distance. Increasing your Magic level is necessary to unlock better Magic spells, hitting higher and having additional effects sometimes. Magic is also often used as a secondary attack style by higher-leveled Monsters, they often look different from player spells and sometimes adding additional effects aswell. Dragonfire is also classified as a Magic attack, so the Protect from Magic prayer affects this attack. Magic is strong against Melee and weak against Ranged armour.